In response to the act, schools have devoted more time in the school day to instruction in reading and mathematics. Unfortunately, 44 percent of school administrators reported that these increases in instructional time for reading and mathematics were achieved at the expense of time devoted to physical education, recess, art, music, and other subjects Center on Education Policy, , see Table The emphasis on high-stakes testing and pressure for academic achievement in the core subjects has had unintended consequences for other subjects throughout the school day.
As discussed earlier, however, no evidence suggests that physical education and physical activity have a negative effect on student achievement. On the contrary, positive academic-related outcomes e. The Center on Education Policy conducted an analysis of survey data from school districts on the amount of time devoted to specific subjects to determine the impact of the No Child Left Behind Act. Shifts in instructional time toward English language arts and mathematics and away from other subjects were relatively large in a majority of school districts that made these types of changes.
A higher proportion of urban districts 76 percent than rural districts 54 percent reported such increases. Districts that also reduced instructional time in other subjects reported total reductions of 32 percent, on average. Eight of 10 districts that reported increasing time for English language arts did so by at least 75 minutes per week, and more than half 54 percent did so by minutes or more per week.
Among districts that reported adding time for mathematics, 63 percent added at least 75 minutes per week, and 19 percent added minutes or more per week. Most districts that increased time for English language arts or mathematics also reported substantial cuts in time for other subjects or periods, including social studies, science, art and music, physical education, recess,.
Among the districts that reported both increasing time for English language arts or mathematics and reducing time in other subjects, 72 percent indicated that they reduced the time for one or more of these other subjects by a total of at least 75 minutes per week. For example, more than half 53 percent of these districts cut instructional time by at least 75 minutes per week in social studies, and the same percentage 53 percent cut time by at least 75 minutes per week in science Center on Education Policy, Districts that reported an increase in instructional time for elementary school English language arts spent an average of minutes per week on this subject before No Child Left Behind was enacted.
After the act became law, they spent minutes per week. The average increase for English language arts was minutes per week, or a 47 percent increase over the level prior to the act Center on Education Policy, ; see district survey items 18 and 19 in Table ITA. Table shows the specific amounts of time cut from various subjects in districts that reported decreases.
For example, 51 percent of districts with a school in need of improvement reported decreased time in social studies, compared with 31 percent of districts with no school in need of improvement Center on Education Policy, The Shape of the Nation Report includes documentation of the multiple reasons students may be exempt from physical education classes. Thirty-three states permit school districts or schools to allow students to substitute other activities for physical education.
Sport Education as a Curriculum Approach to Student Learning
Although it would seem reasonable that some substitution programs such as JROTC or cheerleading might accrue physical activity comparable to that from physical education, these programs do not necessarily offer students opportunities to learn the knowledge and skills needed for lifelong participation in health-enhancing physical activities. No evidence currently exists showing that students receive any portion of the recommended 60 minutes or more of vigorous- or moderate-intensity physical activity through substituted activities sanctioned by their schools.
Barriers other than the policies detailed above hinder efforts to improve and maintain high-quality physical education. This section reviews these barriers, along with some solutions for overcoming them.
Book Review: Sport Education in Physical Education: Research Based Practice
Table lists institutional and teacher-related as well as student-related barriers identified by various authors. They identified three categories of barriers: lower priority for physical education relative to other subjects, lack of performance measures for physical activity, and lack of sufficient infrastructure. Jenkinson and Benson surveyed secondary school physical education teachers in Victoria, Australia, and asked them to rank order the barriers they perceived to providing quality physical education. The results are shown in Table The institutional.
Access to and lack of facilities a , h. Support from administration a , h. Insufficient number of PE staff a , e. Difficulty of providing safely planned and structured lessons d. High level of accountability for other subjects e. Confidence in teaching PE g , h , l.
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Personal school experiences in PE g , h. Low fitness levels, therefore potentially lower ability b. Jenkinson and Benson also presented teachers with a list of barriers to student participation in physical education and physical activity in three categories: institutional, teacher-related, and student-related. The teachers were asked to rank the top five barriers they perceived. Results are presented in Table Finally, Gallo and colleagues found that the greatest process barriers to assessing students in physical education were grading students on skill levels and abilities; time constraints; class size; and record keeping, especially when assessing students on skills, cognitive knowledge, and fitness.
Two key barriers to physical education identified in the studies summarized above are staffing and funding. These barriers reflect a lack of support structure in schools for quality physical education. As noted earlier in this chapter, physical education is short staffed. State mandates have placed pressure on schools to preserve instructional resources for the high-stakes tested core subject areas at the expense of non-core subjects. For example, when a state mandates a maximum class size of 20 students per teacher in all core subjects, with noncompliance resulting in some form of penalty, an elementary school with an average of 25 students per teacher is forced to hire additional teachers in these subjects to meet the state mandate.
Consequently, the school must shrink its teaching force in noncore subjects, such as physical education, to balance its budget. If noncore classes are to be preserved, their class sizes must increase, with fewer teachers serving more students. As a result, it becomes difficult to implement a quality program, and physical education teachers perceive their programs as being undervalued.
According to the Government Accountability Office report K Education: School-Based Physical Education and Sports Programs GAO, , school officials cite budget cuts and inadequate facilities as major challenges to providing physical education opportunities for students. As noted earlier, lack of equipment and limited access to facilities are cited as top barriers in the study by Jenkinson and Benson see Tables and Students disengaged as a result of such practices may prefer sedentary activities to more active lifestyles.
For many adolescents who have few opportunities to be active outside of the school day, quality physical education becomes the only option for physical activity.
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For students in large urban communities, physical education classes serve as a safe environment in which to be physically active under adult supervision in a structured environment. For students with dis-. For these reasons, it is crucial to overcome the above barriers to quality physical education. Some school districts have found ways to do so and provide robust physical education programs.
The barrier of limited time during the school day can be overcome through creative scheduling that makes use of every minute of the day in a constructive manner. For example, Miami-Dade County Public Schools is the fourth largest school district in the United States, in a large urban minority-majority community with large budgetary shortfalls and attention in schools being diverted to academic requirements.
Yet the district has always had daily physical education in its elementary schools taught by a certified physical education teacher. In addition, students receive school board—mandated recess for either 20 minutes two times per week or 15 minutes three times per week. Figures and show examples of elementary school teacher schedules that demonstrate how minutes of time for physical education can be incorporated successfully into any master schedule.
Other positive examples, identified in the report Physical Education Matters San Diego State University, , include successful case studies from low-resource California schools. The report acknowledges, however, that advancing such opportunities will require policy changes at the state, district, and local levels. These changes include securing grant funds with which to implement high-tech physical education wellness centers, staff commitment to professional development, administrative support, physical education being made a priority, community support, use of certified physical education teachers, and district support.
Identifying the need to reform physical education guided by evidence-based findings, the report concludes that 1 curriculum matters, 2 class size matters, 3 qualified teachers matter, 4 professional development matters, and 5 physical environment matters. If programs are to excel and students are to achieve, delivery of the curriculum must be activity based; class sizes must be commensurate with those for other subject areas; highly qualified physical education specialists, as opposed to classroom teachers, must be hired to deliver instruction; professional development in activity-focused physical education must be delivered; and school physical education facilities, such as playing fields and indoor gym space and equipment, must be available.
A separate report, Physical Education Matters: Success Stories from California Low Resource Schools That Have Achieved Excellent Physical Education Programs San Diego State University, , notes that when funding from a variety of grant resources, including federal funding, became available, schools were able to transition to high-quality programs using innovative instructional strategies.
Those strategies included well-. NOTE: Sample is taken from a teacher schedule in a traditional elementary school. Administrative support was found to be a key factor in turning programs around, along with staff commitment and professional development. Having certified physical education teachers and making physical education a priority in the schools were other key factors. External factors further strengthened programs, including having school district support, having a physical education coordinator, and using state standards to provide accountability. Additional ways to overcome the barriers to quality physical education include scheduling time for physical education, ensuring reasonable class size, providing nontraditional physical education activities, making classes more active and fun for all students, and acknowledging the importance of role modeling and personal investment and involvement in participation in physical activity among staff.
Still another way to overcome the barriers to quality physical education is to assist administrative decision makers and policy makers in understand-.
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Physical education is a formal content area of study in schools, it is standards based, and it encompasses assessment according to standards and benchmarks. Select curriculum-based physical education programs have been described in this chapter to show the potential of high-quality physical education in developing children into active adults. Such models provide the only opportunity for all school-age children to access health-enhancing physical activities.
Curriculum models for physical education programs include movement education, which emphasizes the importance of fundamental motor skills competence as a prerequisite for engagement in physical activity throughout the life span; sport education, which emphasizes helping students become skillful players in lifetime sports of their choosing; and fitness education, which imparts physical fitness concepts to students, including the benefits and scientific principles of exercise, with the goal of developing and maintaining individual fitness and positive lifestyle change.
The emergence of a technology-focused fitness education curriculum and the new Presidential Youth Fitness Program offer further motivational opportunities for students to engage in lifelong physical activities.
Because quality physical education programs are standards based and assessed, they are characterized by 1 instruction by certified physical education teachers, 2 a minimum of minutes per week for elementary schools and minutes per week for middle and high schools, and 3 tangible standards for student achievement and for high school graduation.
Quality professional development programs are an essential component for both novice and veteran teachers to ensure the continued delivery of quality physical education. Because physical education is not a high-stakes tested content area, the implementation of supportive policies often is hindered by other education priorities.
Although the above analysis indicates that 30 states In addition, an unintended consequence of the No Child Left Behind Act has been disparities in access to physical education and physical activity opportunities during the school day for Hispanic students and those of lower socioeconomic status. In high school, relying on students to elect physical education after meeting the minimum required credit hours one credit in all states but one appears to be unfruitful.
Strengthening of school physical education has received support from the public, health agencies, and parents. Parents recently surveyed expressed favorable views of physical education. Additionally, many public and private organizations have proposed initiatives aimed at developing a comprehensive school-based strategy centered on curriculum physical education. Abels, K.
Teaching movement education: Foundations for active lifestyles. Bailey, B.
hukusyuu-mobile.com/wp-content/camera/1271-app-to.php Energy cost of exergaming: A comparison of the energy cost of 6 forms of exergaming. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 7 Ball, D. Developing practice, developing practitioners: Toward a practice-based theory of professional development. In Teaching as the learning profession: Handbook of policy and practice, Jossey-Bass education series, edited by L.
Darling-Hammond and G. Baranowski, T.